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Zhao Tuo (Chinese: 趙佗; pinyin: Zhào Tuó; Cantonese Jyutping: Ziu6 To4; Wade–Giles: Chao4 T‘o2) or Triệu Đà in Vietnamese, was a Qin dynasty Chinese general and first emperor of Nanyue. He participated in the conquest of the Baiyue peoples of Guangdong, Guangxi and Northern Vietnam. After the fall of the Qin, he established the independent kingdom of Nanyue with its capital in Panyu (now Guangzhou) in 204 BCE.[1] Some traditional Vietnamese history scholars considered him an emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Triệu dynasty, other historians contested that he was a foreign invader.[2]


A statue of Zhao in front of Heyuan Railway Station
A statue of Zhao Tuo in Hebei, China
Triệu Đà statue at đình Xuân Quan, Hưng Yên, Vietnam


Zhao Tuo was born around 240 BC in Zhending in the state of Zhao (within modern Hebei). When the state of Zhao was defeated and annexed by Qin (state) in 222 BC, Zhao Tuo joined the Qin, serving as one of their generals in the conquest of the Baiyue. The territory of those conquered Yues was divided into the three provinces of Guilin, Nanhai, and Xiang. Zhao served as magistrate in the province of Nanhai until his military commander, Ren Xiao, fell ill. Before he died, Ren advised Zhao not vĩ đại get involved in the affairs of the declining Qin, and instead phối up his own independent kingdom centered around the geographically remote and isolated thành phố of Panyu (modern Guangzhou). Ren gave Zhao full authority vĩ đại act as military commander of Nanhai and died shortly afterwards. Zhao immediately closed off the roads at Hengpu, Yangshan, and Huangqi. Using one excuse or another he eliminated the Qin officials and replaced them with his own appointees. By the time the Qin fell in 206 BC, Zhao had also conquered the provinces of Guilin and Xiang. He declared himself King Wu of Nanyue (Southern Yue).[3][4]

Conflict with the Han[edit]

In June or July 196 BC,[5] Emperor Gaozu of Han dispatched Lu Jia vĩ đại recognize Zhao Tuo as king of Nanyue.[3] Lu gave Zhao a seal legitimizing him as king of Nanyue in return for his nominal submission vĩ đại the Han.

In 185 BC, Empress Lü's officials outlawed trade of iron and horses with Nanyue. Zhao Tuo retaliated by proclaiming himself Emperor Wu of Nanyue and attacking the neighboring kingdom of Changsha, taking a few border towns. In 181 BC, Zhou Zao was dispatched by Empress Lü vĩ đại attack Nanyue, but the heat and dampness caused many of his officers and men vĩ đại fall ill, and he failed vĩ đại make it across the mountains into enemy territory. Zhao began vĩ đại menace the neighboring kingdoms of Minyue, Western Ou, and Luo. After securing their submission he began passing out edicts in a similar manner vĩ đại the Han emperor.[6]

In late 180 BC, Emperor Wen of Han made efforts vĩ đại appease Zhao. Learning that Zhao's parents were buried in Zhending, he phối aside a town close by just vĩ đại take care of their graves. Zhao's cousins were appointed vĩ đại high offices at the Han court. He also withdrew the army stationed in Changsha on the Han-Nanyue border. In response, Zhao rescinded his claims as emperor while communicating with the Han. However, he continued using the title of emperor within his kingdom. Tribute bearing envoys from Nanyue were sent vĩ đại the Han and thus the iron trade was resumed.[7]

Conquest of Âu Lạc[edit]

Having mobilized his armies for war with the Han dynasty, Zhao Tuo found the conquest of Âu Lạc both "tempting and feasible".[8]

The details of the chiến dịch are not authentically recorded. Zhao Tuo's early setbacks and eventual victory against King An Dương were mentioned in Records of the Outer Territories of the Jiao province (交州外域記) and Records [about the Era] of Jin Taikang (晉太康記).[9] Records of the Grand Historian mentioned neither King An Dương nor Zhao Tuo's military conquest of Âu Lạc; just that after Empress Lü's death (180 BCE), Zhao Tuo used his own troops vĩ đại menace and used wealth vĩ đại bribe the Minyue, the Western Ou, and the Luo (Âu Lạc) into submission.[10] The chiến dịch against the Âu Lạc inspired a legend whose theme is the transfer of the turtle claw-triggered crossbow from King An Dương vĩ đại Zhao Tuo. According vĩ đại this legend, ownership of the crossbow conferred the political power. As described in one tài khoản, Cao Lỗ is quoted as saying:“He who is able vĩ đại hold this crossbow rules the realm; he who is not able vĩ đại hold this crossbow will perish.”[11]

Unsuccessful on the battlefield against the supernatural crossbow, Zhao Tuo asked for a truce and sent his son Zhong Shi, vĩ đại submit vĩ đại King An Dương vĩ đại serve him.[12][13] There, he and King An Dương's daughter, Mỵ Châu, fell in love and were married.[13][14] A vestige of the matrilocal organization demanded that the husband came vĩ đại live in the residence of his wife's family.[15] As a result, they resided at An Dương's court until Zhong Shi managed vĩ đại lắc his hands upon the magic crossbow that was the source of King An Dương's power.[15] Meanwhile, King An Dương treated Cao Lỗ disrespectfully, and he abandoned him.[16]

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Zhong Shi had Mỵ Châu show him her father's sacred crossbow, at with point he secretly changed its trigger, thus neutralizing its special powers.[14] He stole the turtle claw, rendering the crossbow useless, then returned vĩ đại his father, who thereupon launched new attack on Âu Lạc and this time defeated King An Dương.[15] History records that, in his defeat, the King jumped into the ocean vĩ đại commit suicide. In some versions, he was told by the turtle about his daughter's betrayal and killed his own daughter before killing himself. A legend, however, discloses that a golden turtle emerged from the water and guided him into the watery realm.[13]

Zhao Tuo subsequently incorporated the regions into his Nanyue tên miền, but left the indigenous chiefs in control of the population with the royal court in Cổ Loa.[17][18][19] For the first time, the region formed part of a polity headed by a Chinese ruler.[20] He posted two legates vĩ đại supervise the Âu Lạc lords, one in the Red River Delta, which was named Jiaozhi, and one in the Mã and Cả River, which was named Jiuzhen. Some records suggest that he also invested a king at Cổ Loa who continued vĩ đại preside over the Âu Lạc lords. The legates established commercial outposts accessible by sea.[21]


Zhao Tuo died in 137 BC at the age of 103, and was succeeded by his grandson, Zhao Mo.[7]


His memorial is in Tuocheng Town, Longchuan County, Guangdong.

A street in Hiệp Phú Ward (District 9) in Ho Chi Minh City was named after him, but the street now has a new name instead.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ulrich
  2. ^ Brantly Womack (2006). China and Vietnam: the politics of asymmetry. Cambridge University Press, 2006. p. 100. ISBN 0-521-85320-6.
  3. ^ a b Watson 1993, p. 208.
  4. ^ Amies, Alex; Ban, Gu (2020). Hanshu Volume 95 The Southwest Peoples, Two Yues, and Chaoxian: Translation with Commentary. Gutenberg Self Publishing Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-9833348-7-3.
  5. ^ 5th month of the 11th year of Liu Bang's reign (including his tenure as King of Han), per vol.12 of Zizhi Tongjian. The month corresponds vĩ đại 18 Jun vĩ đại 16 Jul 196 BCE in the proleptic Julian calendar.
  6. ^ Watson 1993, p. 209.
  7. ^ a b Watson 1993, p. 210.
  8. ^ Taylor 1983, p. 24.
  9. ^ both quoted in Li Daoyuan's Commentary on the Water Classic. "vol. 37", "section Yi Province Yeyu River"
  10. ^ Watson 1961, p. 241.
  11. ^ Nam C. Kim năm ngoái, p. 5.
  12. ^ Leeming 2001, p. 193.
  13. ^ a b c Taylor 1983, p. 25.
  14. ^ a b Kelley năm trước, p. 89.
  15. ^ a b c Taylor 2013, p. 15.
  16. ^ Taylor 2013, p. 16.
  17. ^ Jamieson 1995, p. 8.
  18. ^ Brindley năm ngoái, p. 93.
  19. ^ Buttinger 1958, p. 92.
  20. ^ Kiernan 2019, p. 69.
  21. ^ Taylor 2013, p. 17.


  • Taylor, K.W. (1983), The Birth of the Vietnamese, University of California Press
  • Taylor, K.W. (2013), A History of the Vietnamese, Cambridge University Press
  • Watson, Burton (1993), Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian: Han Dynasty II (Revised Edition, Columbia University Press
  • Ulrich, Theobald (2000). "Chinese History". – An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art. Theobald Ulrich. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  • Watson, Burton (1961). Records Of The Grand Historian Of China. Columbia University Press.
  • Buttinger, Joseph (1958). The Smaller Dragon: A Political History of Vietnam. Praeger Publishers.
  • Leeming, David (2001). A Dictionary of Asian Mythology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512052-3.
  • Kiernan, Ben (2019). Việt Nam: a history from earliest time vĩ đại the present. Oxford University Press.
  • Brindley, Erica (2015). Ancient Trung Quốc and the Yue: Perceptions and Identities on the Southern Frontier, C.400 BCE-50 CE. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-08478-0.
  • Higham, Charles (1996). The Bronze Age of Southeast Asia. Cambridge World Archaeology. ISBN 0-521-56505-7.
  • Kelley, Liam C. (2014), "Constructing Local Narratives: Spirits, Dreams, and Prophecies in the Medieval Red River Delta", in Anderson, James A.; Whitmore, John K. (eds.), China's Encounters on the South and Southwest: Reforging the Fiery Frontier Over Two Millennia, United States: Brills, pp. 78–106, ISBN 978-9-004-28248-3
  • Jamieson, Neil L (1995). Understanding Vietnam. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20157-6.
  • Miksic, John Norman; Yian, Go Geok (2016). Ancient Southeast Asia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-27903-7.
  • Kim, Nam; Lai Van Toi; Trinh Hoang Hiep (2010). "Co Loa: an investigation of Vietnam's ancient capital". Antiquity. 84 (326): 1011–1027. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00067041. S2CID 162065918.
  • Nam C. Kim (2015). The Origins of Ancient Vietnam. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-998089-5.

Zhao Tuo

Born: 240 BC Died: 137 BC

Preceded by

Dynasty established

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King of Nanyue
203–137 BC
Succeeded by